In which way the presence of sugar (glucose) in the blood affects the health?

Blood sugar (glucose)The level of sugar in the blood can be understood also as the concentration of glucose in blood. From all the simple carbohydrates that glucose contains it is very important for the body because it is a universal energy source. During the meal body receives a variety of mono- and polysaccharides, but they all are converted in the process of metabolism into to glucose, because many other parts of the body are not able to use other sugars as an energy source.

The main role in maintaining of optimal human life and maintaining of normal glucose concentration belongs to hormones that regulate the recycling process and the formation of this carbohydrate. In human body is found only one hormone that is "responsible" for reducing of concentration of glucose in blood; it is insulin secreted by β-cells located in pancreas, which stimulates the processing of glucose by other cells.

High blood sugar is the main stimulus for the synthesis and subsequent secretion of insulin. If the concentration falls of sugar is below normal, its secretion is reduced by contra-insulin hormones (glucagon, growth hormone, etc.) that promote the release carbohydrates into the blood from the cells of other tissues and by other as stress hormones that suppress the secretion of insulin.

Normally the sugar level in the plasma varies between 3.3 - 6.2 mmol/l. The presence of small short-term variability in results of glucose level measurements in blood can is characteristic to healthy people too: improving of overall glucose concentration occurs immediately after a meal, while a temporary decline may be used by high physical activity, long intervals between meals or alcohol abuse. That is why, if is found high or low glucose levels at the patient, you shouldn’t not panic, but it is highly recommended to complete test again or see a doctor, who may recommend additional research methods, it is necessary. Even in the absence of health problems you should do blood analysis at least 1 time per year.

Prolonged or very large in size abnormalities adversely affect the health and indicate on the presence of a developing disease. Thus, high level of blood sugar is common among people with diabetes. It develops due to insufficient secretion of insulin (I type of diabetes) or when this hormone is not functioning (II type of diabetes). Reduction of the concentration of glucose is bad for brain functions and may lead to hypoglycemic coma, and it is also one of the symptoms of serious diseases of the pancreas.

For primary diagnosis of diseases in which level of blood sugar is different from the norm you should complete some tests and analyses in the laboratory. There are several types of analysis, in which the blood sample is collected from a finger or from a vein, with or without load of body during the procedure. The doctor decides which version of the test will help to obtain right result in this case. In the presence of severe symptoms of diabetes, the diagnosis of a single result is sufficient research evidence of glucose level above normal. If the health of the patient seems to be satisfactory and there are no other symptoms doctor can diagnose diabetes when high concentration of glucose in patient’s blood was found in two different days. Food intake affects the outcome of this kind of researches, so that all such tests are made when patient has an empty stomach. Depending on the kind of blood that was used for the tests it will change the norms and boundaries: Sugar level in capillary blood is considered normal if it has concentration of 3.3 to 5.6 mmol/L, if the venous blood plasma is analyzed, normal values are up to 10-12% higher .

Laboratory tests are the most accurate, but they are not always suitable for people with diabetes, because they have to measure blood sugar frequently. In such cases for rapid analysis is used portable blood glucose meter. However, the measurement error of these devices can be up to 20%. Moreover, in 5% of cases it can exceed this value, so for primary diagnostics of diabetes this device is not suitable.