Polyneuropathy in diabetes mellitus

Digestive tract
Associated diseases
Direct diseases


Polyneuropathy in diabetes mellitusPolyneuropathy is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus, which is found in aged people or those who suffer from diabetes for 10 or more years. This disease appears because of affection of proximalis and distalis periferal nerves and in general of autonomous nerve system. Especially difficult forms of complications of diabetes mellitus are prone to create ulcers on limbs, vegitative and vascular disorders and they lead to complete disablement so they can be considered primary causes for high level of deaths of patients with diabetes mellitus.

The metabolic (hyperglycosemia, insulin deficiency) and vascular disorders lead to polyneuropathy in case of diabetes mellitus. If there is an insulin deficiency presented, glucose is utilized in wrong way and it produces a lot of toxic products (for example: acetone).

Glucose is necessary to get the nerves system working properly. The lack of it as well as constant poisoning with metabolism wastes lead to the death of nerve cells.

In the beginning of the disease, symptoms might be absent. In case of subclinical form of neuropathy, it may be diagnosed in neurophysiological departments by applying of special tests.

The second clinic stage appears with pain in limbs, heat, tingling, weakening of reflexes and low sensitivity. An acute pain form shows: bad blood sugar control, diffusive pain, body weight loss and hypertension. Sensory disorders are insignificant and they can be noticed by specialists only in the course of medical examination.

Amyotrophia may be found in patients having unascertained diagnosis or with poor controlled diabetes mellitus, often in aged patients. It features muscular weakness, night pains and affecting of proximalis muscles of lower limbs.

It is possible to observe the painless form of neuropathy, which shows the pain and thermal reduction of sensitivity threshold, absence of pains, but the presence of numbness in limbs.

The third stage of disease development is the period of the hardest complications: ulcers, diabetic osteoarthropathy and often amputations take place in this case.

Diabetic polyneuropathy isn’t the last complication, it is accompanied with retinopathy and nephropathy.

Treatment and therapy of the disease and its measures are targeted on normalization of blood sugar level. It is necessary to prescribe dissociable inhibitor of aldose reductase, vitamins of group B, α-lipoic acid and some essential fatty acids. The most effective are preparations of thioctic or α-lipoic acids, which are influencing metabolic processes, decrease the injury of nerve filaments and also are strong antioxidants.