Pancreatic gland in diabetes mellitus

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Pancreatic gland in diabetes mellitusPancreatic gland is an internal organ of combined secretion, having endo- and exocrine parts. The former are presented with Langerhans islets, containing five types of cells, secreting various hormones. Exocrine cells produce certain set of ferments that are transferred to bowels to take part in digestion process. Thus pancreatic gland is responsible for a row of functions that is pertained to its cells.

Functions of pancreatic gland

Digesting functions:

Accompanying diseases related to pancreatic gland

Due to so many functions of pancreatic gland, diabetes mellitus incurs also some other diseases. For example, some associated to diabetes mellitus diseases are pancreatitis, duodenitis, thrombophlebitis and osteochondrosis.

Description of the diseases

Diseases of pancreatic gland in diabetes mellitusPathological changes in pancreatic gland in case of diabetes mellitus development begin from dystrophic affection of Langerhans islets. One part of these cells dies; groups of endocrine cells get smaller, the borders of islets are deformed. As a rule it is the beginning of idiopathic diabetes mellitus.

In case of autoimmune diabetes, leading role belongs to aggressive antibodies, which damage cell membranes of Langerhans islets, causing their destruction. So total amount of endocrine cells is decreasing as a result, and those cells that survived cannot secrete enough hormones, influencing the sugar metabolism, as their Golgi complexes that are connected to membranes are damaged.

After that pathologies may develop in two ways. The first one is that pancreatic gland is involved into the process of inflammation and pancreatitis is on the go. At this point not only hormone production is disordered, but also the production of digestion ferments is affected too, digestion disorders take place, and ill health in hypochondrium state.

The second scenario brings even more dramatic consequences. In this case protective mechanisms fail, then in place of dead cells is growing connective tissue, which pressures onto the normal cells functioning. As a result, the pancreatic gland gets smaller and thicker and stops functioning properly at all soon.

Thus, changes of pancreatic gland in course of diabetes mellitus, which could be seen only in microscope in the beginning of growth and with time the organ will entirely defeat.