Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus



In normal glucose is needed for the normal function of any cell. Glucose received from food are delivered to cells. The cell has special receptors - glucose-insulin-binding, which control the process of receipt of the glucose into the cell. Consequently, the rise in blood sugar may be associated with high content of glucose, insufficient insulin secretion and inadequate utilization of glucose by cells (muscle, liver mostly). The term hyperglycemia means an increased level of glucose in the blood.

Hyperglycemia develops when blood glucose too much. You can highlight several reasons for the rise in blood sugar: excessive intake, insufficient insulin secretion, or a decrease in the utilization (reduction of consumption, capture) glucose insulin receptors in the tissues. The last case is the main diagnostic for identifying the diagnosis diabetes type 2. With type 2 diabetes in the early stages of insulin not only enough, but rather much, but as the utilization of glucose of the tissues is disturbed due to the inadequate function of glucose-insulin-binding receptors, elevated levels of insulin is not enough to normalize the glucose level.

there are two types: fasting and postprandial glycemia. The first is defined as the rise in blood sugar after a fasting period 8 hour (i.e. the duration of the period of natural sleep) and in the numbers of blood sugar above 130 mg/DL (7.2 mmol/l). Postprandial is determined 2 hours after food, above 180 mg/DL (11,2 mmol/l). Normally, after lunch, when stress is a transient hyperglycemia, usually it does not exceed 140 mg/L. But postprandial hyperglycemia is already a pathological condition. So if during the day is determined by the blood glucose above 180 mg/l, this criterion is included in the set of criteria of diabetes.

In the evolution of diabetes type 2 before it develops postprandial hyperglycemia, so it is important not to skip this type of blood glucose levels and not on an empty stomach. Usually to use diagnostic test with a standard Breakfast, or dosed carbohydrate load.

the Main cause of diabetes type 2 diabetes is poor diet, obesity and predisposing genetic factors. The most reliable criterion for diagnosis is the determination of the level of glycated hemoglobin. Determining the level of glycated hemoglobin should be part of standard preventive medical examination for any person. When the boundary values you should always consult your doctor endocrinologist. The test with carbohydrate loading is a differential diagnostic criterion for the installation of postprandial hyperglycemia.

Glycated hemoglobin is the basis to control the treatment of diabetes.

Hyperglycemia is dangerous not only complications, but of the glucose. Themselves complications such as ketoacidosis and even coma are not as common nowadays because the treatment of diabetes is fairly well developed.

Retinopathy and neuropathy significantly more frequent symptoms of diabetes. But, it greatly reduces the quality of life and increases the risk of all known cardiovascular diseases. On the background of diabetes all diseases and injuries occur is much heavier.