Diseases, affection and treatment of eyes in diabetes mellitus

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Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease by its nature and it can cause metabolism disorders in human’s organism. It is manifested by lack or poor activity of hormone “insulin” that is produced by organism. Diabetes mellitus is considered one of the most serious problems of the modern medicine. Its widespread is terrifying and the number of patients suffering from this disease grows constantly every year.

Diabetes mellitus is dangerous because of later complications that can appear during the flow of this disease, which may be a cause early invalidity and even death of a patient. The later complications include affecting of eyes. The changes of eye organs in diabetes are very different in their severity and localization. All parts of eyes can suffer from disease’s manifestations.


It is usual to have cataract as associated disease for people who suffer from diabetes. Cataract is not a disease specific to eyes in diabetics; it may happen to people without diabetes mellitus too. However, the diabetics suffer from it much more often and it has severer forms than usually (without associated diabetes). The diabetes cataract affects two eyes at once, resulting quick progress and fast changes in eye refraction. The main symptom of diabetic cataract is the lenticular opacity, that comes quickly from peripheral area to the center.


Glaucoma is very unspecific eye disease for people suffering from diabetes mellitus. Disease progresses in result of drainage of eye liquid. The liquid begins to accumulate and it increases intraocular pressure. Increased eye pressure affects nerves and small vessels of eye, leading to weakening of quality of sight and ability to see.

Very often glaucoma progresses and develops without any visible symptoms. Only when it enters the severe form, it leads to quick and significant loss of vision ability. Patients rare can feel any eye pain, headache or blurred vision.


Retinopathy is considered one of the most dangerous eye diseases, which hits vessels of eye fundus. The disease is manifested by quick loss of sight and it may lead to blindness.

The cause of retinopathy is considered to be high blood sugar level. The disease is aggravated when the patient has high hypertension (big values of blood pressure), kidney diseases or\and lipid metabolism disorders.

The diabetic retinopathy may be divided into non-proliferative (background), pre-proliferative (maculopathy) and proliferative, depending on the level of eye fundus affection.

The non-proliferative retinopathy features the initial affection of eye blood vessels and does not lead to eye problems. The pre-proliferative retinopathy shows the venous anomalies, small blood strokes, forming of exudates. The proliferative retinopathy is the hardest form of all three, which is manifested by formations of new blood vessels layered over the normal vessels. These proliferating tissues cause the detachment of the retina, apoplexy into vitreous body and blindness. This phase of retinopathy leads to invalidity with complete or partial loss of sight.

Initial phases of retinopathy have no symptoms. Partial or complete loss of sight is the later symptom, that proves and is presented in case of hard form of the disease.

The ophthalmological examination is the only way to find the problems at early stages. That is why every patient with diabetes mellitus should visit an ophthalmologist at least once a year.

The only preventive factor for eyesight problems of diabetic is the compensation of the disease manifestations that means preventing of blood sugar increasing. Only under these conditions it is possible to avoid complications of diabetes.