Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus

Diet and nutrition
In children


diabetes insipidus diagnosisdiagnosis of diabetes insipidus is very important to identify the cause of the disease is nephrogenic, neurogenic, or Central, because it affects the choice of methods of treatment. To clarify the diagnosis of the disease is necessary to study anamnestic data and patient's complaints, to perform functional studies of blood, urine, an MRI of the brain.

In typical cases, symptoms of diabetes insipidus observed severe thirst the patient during the day drinks from 5 to 20 liters of water, volume of urine exceeds 3 liters and constant urination. If there are no psychological and psychosocial reasons for this, the doctor prescribes the blood and urine tests. Examines patient's medical history to determine the presence of renal disease, hormonal imbalances and brain tumors.

we consider the following parameters of blood and urine: glucose, calcium, potassium, sodium, urea nitrogen of blood serum, the specific gravity of the urine and glucosuria. Laboratory tests in the presence of the disease show a low relative density of urine (less than 1008) all portions of the day in the absence of azotemia. The osmolarity of urine less 300РјРћСЃРј/kg and the osmolarity of the blood serum of more than 300 mOsm/kg in the absence of kidney disease, hypercalcemia and hypokalemia. The concentration of glucose in the blood while diabetes insipidus is normal.

For a more confident diagnosis of diabetes insipidus is appointed by magnetic resonance imaging, since the Central diabetes insipidus is primarily a pathology of the hypothalamus and occurs in tumors and inflammatory brain diseases, traumatic brain injuries.

this test with xerophagy (fluid restriction): for 8-12 hours a patient should refrain from taking liquids. Every hour is measured by the weight of the body, examines the level of sodium in the blood, specific gravity and volume of urine. With an increase of sodium level in the blood more than 3 mmol/l the test is immediately terminated. In the case of confirmation of diagnosis there is a decrease in weight by more than 5%, while increasing relative density and osmolarity of urine. This is a confirmation of diabetes insipidus due to the absence of antidiureticheskogo hormone.

Thanks to modern methods of diagnosis, diabetes insipidus is determined quickly and easily, allowing you time to begin treatment. In the case of timely medical treatment in neurogenic and nephrogenic form of surgical intervention, radiation and chemotherapy at the Central form, a diet with a high content of carbohydrates and a fractional meal, the prognosis is favorable.