Diabetes mellitus of 2nd type - forms, forum, medicine

Type 1
2nd type
Latent
Steroidogenic
Subcompensated
Gestational
Latent
Insipidus
Insulin-independent
Labile
Mody
Primary
Compensated
Decompensated
Acquired
Alloxan
Autoimmune
Bronze

 

Diabetes mellitus of 2nd type The diabetes mellitus of 2nd type looks like a chronic disease, which is s manifested by carbohydrate metabolism disorder and progress of hyperglycemia, that is caused by insulin resistance and strong dysfunction of beta cells. Also, features of this disease include the lipid metabolism disorder in cells and appearance of atherosclerosis. Due to the high death rate in result of complications caused by atherosclerosis, the diabetes mellitus of 2nd type can be also considered disease of cardiovascular nature too.

There are exist few forms of the disease, and everyone has its own severity level. The light form may be compensated and treated with the diet, or the diet in combination with sugar decreasing medications. In this case the probability of progressing of angiopathy is low. Diabetes mellitus of middle severity level is can be controlled and treated by compensation of negative metabolic disorders, if 2-3 pills of special decreasing sugar drug is taken by patient. At this stage of development of the disease there is a high potential of cardiovascular complications. In case of hard form of the disease, the compensation is possible to be completed by treatment means that combine with sugar decreasing medications and insulin therapy. Hard cardiovascular complications may appear at this stage of development of the disease.

Amaryl in diabetes mellitusAs a rule, the treatment process of diabetes mellitus begins with the correct diet, that is a combination of diet and strictly portioned physical activities. At the early stages of the disease, slight loss of weight may lead to normalization of processes of carbohydrate metabolism in the organism and it also helps to decrease glucose synthesis in liver. Future phases of treatment are not possible without consulting with qualified specialists and application of medical preparations. Such treatment is aimed on decreasing of glucose absorbing in the bowels area and its synthesis in liver. At this point it is necessary to increase patientís insulin sensitivity of tissues. The medications that promote insulin secreting are used very often in such situations, some of those medications are: amaryl, glyurenorm, diabeton MB and others. Doctors believe that treatment of this disease may be effective, in case if it is possible to normalize the liver condition, which takes major part in carbohydrate metabolism.

The correct diet of patient that suffers from diabetes mellitus of 2nd type may reduce possibility of apparition of the consequences of the disease. Right diet like that should contain enough proteins, which are taken from milk, meat and fish products as well as form eggs too. The proteins are needed to build cells, but excessive amount of proteins is prohibited. Patient needs 1-2 gram of native protein per 1 kg of body weight. This ratio is not constant and it depends on the gross amount of food eaten by the patient. The key feature of the diet for diabetes mellitus of 2nd type is strict limiting of fats in food. Due to this reason, it is better to use purified sunflower oil when cooking. All foods, fish and meat in particular, should be cooked or stewed without any other fats. Courses made from vegetables and fruits may be eaten without any limitations. Cheeses as well as lean meat and veal are especially useful. Numerous recipes may be found on the Web.

The diabetes mellitus of second type has its own symptoms. Those are constant fatigue and apathy. These are manifested in absence of respect to the job, poor activity and rapid fatigability. Overall debility leads to poor immunity and bad resistance to infection and catarrhal diseases. Frequent urination, which is aggravated during the night hours, may be a sign of diabetes mellitus too. The other signs are strong thirst and constant dry in mouth, heavy sweating and attacks of weakness. Danger of frequent urination and thirst may be tokens of coma for a few days. People suffering from this disease usually lose weight and notice the weakening of eyesight.

The main reason of hypoglycaemia is usually the abnormal level of insulin in blood, which dicreases glucose level. The diabetes mellitus of second type is a kind of disease, that may be inherited. Most of people suffering from this kind of diabetes mellitus have an excessive weight, which is great factor that leads to appearance of this disease. Doctors also call general liposis to be one of the risk factors that helps to appearance of the disease.

Diabetes mellitus may be recognized by increase of glucose concentration in blood and simultaneous decrease of tissue ability to utilize and obtain glucose. Patients that suffer from diabetes mellitus show the tendency to use alternative sources of energy, which are amino acids and also fat free acids. Abnormal concentration of blood glucose leads to disorders in vital for organism albuminous compounds resulting in pathological changes of some internal organs.

Most of complications caused by diabetes of 2nd type lead to appearance of cardiovascular diseases. Statistics shows that around 85% of all patients suffering from heart diseases joined this group due to presence of diabetes mellitus. Besides, all aged people suffering from diabetes of 2nd type are prone to hyperosmolar coma and dehydration symptom because they have abnormal level of blood sugar. If there is no treatment of hypoglycaemia, appearance of complications as well as overall worsening of the patient's health are possible. When the cerebrum undergoes the deficiency of glucose, cells are starving which is shown initially with absence of mind, and later as impairment of consciousness and, finally, its complete loss. Some certain complications of diabetes mellitus of 2nd type are: lower blood circulation in body limbs and its disorders. In this case, even the lightest physical activity may cause severe pain in lower limbs; so, the patient has to stop and he should have a break before moving again.

Compensated diabetes mellitus is pathological state, which shows the maximum proximity of blood sugar level to the required levels by means of medical treatment. In this case probability of appearance of any complications is close to minimal. Usually, compensation of diabetes is sustaining the blood sugar level at some point, where the probability of complication appearance is low. In case of self-supporting treatment, the question of its compensation should be main question. If regular visiting of a doctor for patients is difficult, it is necessary to control the disease on their own. The patients can communicate and share their experiences over the Internet with other people that suffer from this disease too.

Together with the compensated type of diabetes mellitus stands decompensated type of this disease, which reflects the state of pathological processes that raises the probability of appearance and progress of complications.

The history of diabetes mellitus counts over 300 years. In Greek its name means 'flow' and in its literal meaning this phrase exactly means 'losing of sugar'. The doctors of ancient times described it as a mysterious disease. The prefix mysterious may be used present days too because the nature and exact list of complications caused by this disease is not known yet. Only in 17th century doctors noticed the sweetish flavor of urine of the patients. Later, in the second half of 19th century, this fact was started to be used in diagnostics of the disease. In 1921 the scientists extracted insulin from the pancreatic gland of a test animal. Same time it was discovered that this substance eliminates the signs of the disease. It was 1960, when the chemical structure of human insulin got known to the scientists. And, finally, in 1979 the scientists have synthesized insulin by using of means of genetic engineering.

Modern medical science employs the test they use for diagnosing of diabetes mellitus of 1st and 2nd type. The sugar blood test remains the main diagnostic analysis if there is an assumption of this disease. To make sure that the test will not produce any fake results, the blood is taken, when patient has empty stomach. The patient should not eat for 8 hours before blood test and analysis. The required level of blood sugar is between 3.3 and 5.5 mmol/L. In case of the higher concentration, one more test should be completed. In case of the positive results doctors assign the test for glucose tolerance. Second type of diabetes, which is also called insulin-independent, shows glycemia in the fasted state of patient with values that lie in borders of 6.2 mmol/L. Glucosuria may be absent or shown in daily portions, while the amount of immunoresponsive insulin will be normal.

The diabetes mellitus of type 2 treatment starts with the breaking of diet stereotypes, which is very important for obese and fatty people. In this case meals should be more frequent, but they should be taken with smaller portions, which will create specific timetable of eating that consists of three main daily meals and two in between of them. Every meal should come together with physical activities and sugar decreasing medications. The time of eating should be fixed and regular for every day. Calorific capacity of nutrition should be corrected to keep the required level of weight or decreasing it. It is also necessary for patient to decrease the consumption of alcohol because it adds a lot of calories. The diet content should be balanced and regular; consumption of carbohydrates and fats should be minimal. In case of excessive weight, it is necessary to give up on eating and consumption of animal fats. The patient's diet should become richer in diet food fiber from fruits and vegetables. In case of diabetes compensation consumption of diabetic products is not mandatory.