Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus in cats - symptoms, treatment, signs, diet and food

In cats
In dogs


Diabetes mellitus in cats n conditions of home animals are often encountered by same disease as that of the people. So, different endocrinological diseases, including diabetes and diabetes insipidus can be developed in cats.

As it is known, development of diabetes is a dysfunction of pancreas, when this organ loses its ability to produce insulin that is needed for glucose utilization. In this case, hyperglycemia is developed to animal; it is increase of blood glucose level, which is manifested by the corresponding symptoms.

The disease can occur in animals of any age and gender, but in most cases they are ill adult cats, especially those with excess of body mass. The disease can occur in various forms. Treatment of so-called diabetes mellitus of 1st type requires use of insulin, which is routinely given by subcutaneous injection. The second form when there is presented diabetes mellitus of 2nd type usually some special diet is adjusted to animal, but although there are more serious situation, that require pills or injections. Finally, another kind of this disease that is called secondary diabetes occurs against background of presence of some other disease. For example, it may be preceded by pancreatitis . Relative advantage of presence of this form of disease is that in many cases it eliminates causes and symptoms of diabetes mellitus and it disappears.

When diabetes insipidus is presented the dysfunction occurs to pituitary gland. Due to hormonal disorders of the body sick cat begins to withdraw the water and electrolytes actively. Probability of appearance of this disease is several times less than the diabetes. This disease can be congenital, with symptoms that are manifested within first six months of animal’s life. If it leads to other causes, such as a brain tumor, which is usually manifested in cats older than 5-6 years.

Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus in cats

Cats’ diabetes mellitus is sometimes very difficult to diagnose is not something that the owner can find by oneself, but it is also hard task for even experienced veterinarian. Disease can be presented and manifested with bright symptoms, and can be virtually invisible. In addition, there is no single clinical form of manifestation of this disease.

Diabetes mellitus in catsIn first type of diabetes mellitus cat is usually thin, and has well-seen obvious symptoms. Second type of diabetes mellitus is usually found in animals with normal-weight or in case of presence of obesity. They have desired for this disease symptoms which are usually minimal and are represented badly.

Typical symptoms of presence of diabetes mellitus include increased thirst and urine volume. Some cats are showing an increased appetite, along with which there is weight loss, decrease in muscle mass, hair loss and the deterioration of its quality. Also can be noticed reduced physical activity of the animal.

Diabetes mellitus of 1st type may worsen this condition as ketoacidosis. In this case blood accumulates a large amount of ketone bodies that have a toxic effect on the body. The cat in a short time starts to feel increasing weakness, nausea and vomiting, and much worse overall health, animal in this case looks unhealthy. Also some symptoms are shortness of breath, urine eliminates a lot of fluid from organism, and cat is bothered by thirst. If owner will not take urgent measures, animal can die.

To make a diagnosis of diabetes, the cat must pass the clinical and biochemical analysis of blood and urine tests in boundaries of veterinary examination. If in biochemical analysis and urine is detected high levels of glucose then diagnosis is confirmed.

Symptoms of diabetes insipidus in kittens are very similar to those of listed above diseases. Among them can be founded such symptoms as thirst, increased urination and enuresis. Possible are also symptoms such as weakness, decreased physical activity, sometimes – even muscular cramps due to dehydration. Important diagnostic feature of the disease is colorless of animal’s urine. Diagnosis is made by detection of increased amounts of sodium in the biochemical analysis of blood and by reduction of urine density(thickness).

Treatment of diabetes in cats and dogs

Diabetes mellitus in cats: diet and foodIn case of presence of diabetes mellitus of 1st type in cats are held a short-acting insulin injections as the way of treatment of the disease. They should be made 2 times a day, just before animal’s feeding. Precise dosage is determined by the veterinarian according to results of analyzes. In case of presence of mild diabetes mellitus of 2nd type special diet is prescribed to animal. If necessary, some tablets and hypoglycemic agents are given to animals, rarely there is a need to introduce small doses of insulin.

When there is diabetes insipidus cat should drink a lot of liquids. As a means of correcting of the disease flow drug desmopressin is prescribed to an animal, which comes in the form of eye drops (drip 1-2 drops under the eyelid 1-2 times a day), or as a solution for injection. In the latter case, agent is injected under the skin at a dose of 2 to 5 mg 1-2 times a day.

Rare form of diabetes insipidus are associated with the dysfunction of susceptibility of renal receptors for the hormone vasopressin, used for treatment of chlorothiazide from 10 to 40 mg per 1 kg of body weight. This drug should be administrated in form of pill 2 times per day.

Nutrition and diet in case of diabetes mellitus

Presence of diabetes requires significant changes in the diet of cats. If an animal has signs of excessive weight, owner should limit daily caloric intake and promote increased physical activity, which can lead to weight loss. Already under the influence of this simple action cat’s health condition can significantly improve.

If the cat has diabetes mellitus of first type, quantity of foods should be improved. Along with this, you cannot force an animal to eat, if it does not want it.

Cat should eat small portions of food, since a heavy meal is a sharp jump in the level of glucose in the blood, and drink plenty of fluids. It is better to feed a sick animal with type second type of diabetes 4-5 times a day, little by little. Carbohydrates should be eliminated from food. In course of diet is recommended use of high-protein diet with a small amount of boiled vegetables. There are special types of prepared feeds that contain everything you need for a sick animal.

In case of diabetes insipidus key is to respect and attend to certain water regime. In the diet should be included semi vegetables dishes like soups, dairy products or etc.