Causes (etiology, pathogenesis) of diabetes mellitus type 1

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the Main link in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (also called insulin-dependent diabetes) - destruction of beta cells type pancreas. located in the islets of Langerhans, resulting in a decrease in the content of blood insulin. Lack of insulin in the blood leads to hyperglycemia.

the basis of the mechanism of destruction of beta cells-type is an autoimmune reaction that can be caused by a lack of tolerance of the immune system to antigens of the beta cells-type.

the disease is conventionally divided into two periods. The beta cells are destroyed slowly, so in the first (latent) period of violation of carbohydrate metabolism occurs. Gradually the number of dead beta-cells increases and, as a result, begins to show a deficiency of insulin. This period is called clinical.

Consider the reasons underlying the destruction of beta cells-type.

1. The main cause of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus - viral infection. Beta cells are targeted by many viruses, such as rubella, mumps, chickenpox, measles, cytomegalovirus. In addition, a risk factor is infection suffered by the mother during pregnancy.

2. Cancer.

3. The effects of toxic substances. To drugs, have a toxic effect and destroying the beta cells are diazoxide in large doses (antihypertensive drug) and streptozocin (anticancer drug). The toxic effect also have an azo dye alloxan and vacor, used for rodent control.

4. Pancreatitis.

5. Stress.

6. Autoimmune diseases.

the Cause of development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus defines the features of its pathogenesis, in particular the mechanism of destruction of beta cells type. It is known that the pathogenesis of insulin dependent diabetes caused by exposure to toxic substances, different from the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes, is caused by a viral infection. It should be noted that there is one of the main causes is genetic susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes. In the field of HLA short arm of the 6th chromosome are genes, defects of which cause the autoimmune aggression of the organism to beta cells type pancreas. In recent years we have discovered other genes that cause susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.